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ANNOTATED TEXT OF CISG
An offer, even if it is irrevocable, is terminated when a rejection reaches the offeror.
Legislative history || Case law ||
Scholarly writings || Links to related articles ||
Words and phrases || Other Formation issues || CISG (full-text)
Guide to this article
Scholarly writings on this article
The cisgw3 bibliography contains over 8,000 citations. It is therefore likely that, in addition to case law, you will find scholarly literature - often a wealth of such literature - on virtually every aspect of the CISG you research.
- Selected monographs and anthologies (English language)
- Selected law journal articles and other commentaries
- Kazuaki Sono [Japan], Formation of International Contracts under the Vienna Convention: A Shift above the Comparative Law, in: Sarcevic & Volken ed., International Sale of Goods: Dubrovnik Lectures, Oceana (1986), Ch. 4, 111-131
- See also formation commentaries listed below
- Supplementary list of citations to Article 17 commentaries: Unilex citations*
* Most members of the Autonomous Network of CISG Websites also offer bibliographies. Many are tailored, concentrating on commentaries by authors from or writing on CISG issues of special interest to specific countries or regions; some, e.g. CISG online are general and extensive; some, e.g., CISG-Belgium and CISG-Finland also list commentaries by individual articles of the CISG.
- To identify other relevant commentaries, go to the cisgw3 Bibliography and Bibliography Search Form [formation and offer are search form entries you may wish to consider]
Bibliography citations on formation
Citations on offer
We also encourage you to tailor your own cisgw3 bibliography search to the specific aspect of this article that you are researching.*
* The cisgw3 bibliography contains over 500 pages of citations. Analyzing these listings can pay dividends.
Links to related articles
Attention to related articles and to the CISG in its entirety is important. This is an autonomous law, i.e., it is meant to be construed within its four corners. When considering aspects of the CISG, because this law relies heavily on general principles, one ought to look at related provisions and the CISG in its entirety.
- All of the CISG's Formation provisions are related to one another. By way of illustration, go to:
- Gyula Eörsi [Hungary], Problems of Unifying Law on the Formation of Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, 27 American Journal of Comparative Law (1979) 311-323
- Guilio Giannini [Italy], The Formation of the Contract in the UN Convention on the International Sale of Goods: A Comparative Analysis, Nordic Journal of Commercial Law (2006/1) 30 p.; a case-annotated comparative analysis f the provisions of the CISG on Formation of the Contract, available online at lt;http://www.njcl.utu.fi/1_2006/article3.pdf>
- Sylvette Guillemard [Canada], Comparaison des Principes UNIDROIT et des Principes du droit européen des contrats dans la perspective de l'harmonisation du droit applicable à la formation des contrats internationaux [Comparison of the UNIDROIT Principles and the Principles of European Contract Law from the perspective of harmonization of the law applicable to the formation of international contracts (CISG comments included) - in French], thesis Université Laval (23 May 1999). Also available in English text
- Burt A. Leete [U.S.], Contract Formation under the United Nations Convention for the International Sale of Goods and the Uniform Commercial Code: Pitfalls for the Unwary, 6 Temple International and Comparative Law Journal (1992) 193-215
- John E. Murray, Jr. [U.S.], An Essay on the Formation of Contracts and Related Matters under the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, 8 Journal of Law and Commerce (1998) 11-51
- Pilar Perales Viscasillas [Spain], The Formation of Contracts and the Principles of European Law, 13 Pace International Law Review (Fall 2001) 371-397
- Ingeborg Schwenzer & Florian Mohs, Old Habits Die Hard: Traditional Contract Formation in a Modern World, Internationales Handelsrecht (6/2006) 239-246
- Peter Winship [U.S.], Formation of International Sales Contracts under the 1980 Vienna Convention, 17 International Lawyer (1983) 1-18
- Citations to broader multi-lingual selection of commentaries on Formation of the contract
- The CISG has eleven Formation provisions. For links to the other ten, go to Annotated Text of Article 14 [Criteria for an offer]; go to Annotated Text of Article 15 [When offer becomes effective: prior withdrawal]; go to Annotated Text of Article 16 [Revocability of offer]; go to Annotated Text of Article 18 [Acceptance: time and manner for indicating assent]; go to Annotated Text of Article 19 ["Acceptances" with modifications]; go to Annotated Text of Article 20 [Interpretation of offeror's time-limits for acceptance]; go to Annotated Text of Article 21 [Late acceptances: response by offeror]; go to Annotated Text of Article 22 [Withdrawal of acceptance]; go to Annotated Text of Article 23 [Effect of acceptance: time of conclusion of contract]; go to Annotated Text of Article 24 [When communication "reaches" the addressee]
Words, phrases and concepts
Other Formation issues
Pace Law School Institute of
International Commercial Law
- Last updated January 15, 2014
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