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Article 1. Basic Rules of Applicability

TEXT OF ARTICLE 1

(1) This Convention applies to contracts of sale of goods between parties whose places of business are in different States:

(a) when the States are Contracting States; or

(b) when the rules of private international law lead to the application of the law of a Contracting State.

(2) The fact that the parties have their places of business in different States is to be disregarded whenever this fact does not appear either from the contract or from any dealings between, or from information disclosed by, the parties at any time before or at the conclusion of the contract.

(3) Neither the nationality of the parties nor the civil or commercial character of the parties or of the contract is to be taken into consideration in determining the application of this Convention.


OUTLINE OF ISSUES

Reproduced with permission of UNCITRAL

[Double requirement for applicability: ... Internationality (art. 1(1)) and ... Relation to Contracting State (art. 1(1)(a)&(b)]

1A Internationality: Parties' places of business in different States

1A1 What constitutes place of business

1A11 Temporary site for negotiation or conclusion of contract

1A12 Party with multiple places of business (see art. 10)

1A2 Party unaware other's place of business is foreign (art. 1(2))

1A21 Relevant time for awareness

1A22 Contract with agent of undisclosed foreign principal

1A3 Contract with incorporated subsidiary of foreign company

1B Relation to Contracting State

1B1 Parties in different Contracting States (art. 1(1)(a))

1B11 Private international law points to non-Contracting State

1B2 Private international law points to Contracting State (art. 1(1)(b))

1B21 Applicability of private international law of forum

1B22 Reservation under art. 95 to exclude art. 1(1)(b)

1B221 Forum has retained art. 1(1)(b); private international law points to State with art. 95 reservation

1B222 Forum has excluded art. 1(1)(b); private international law points to State that has retained art. 1(1)(b)

1B3 Possible exclusion of territorial unit of State (see art. 93)

1B4 Possible exclusion of Part II or Part III (see art. 92)

1B5 Relevant time for double requirement (1A and 1B, above)

1C Civil or commercial character of parties (art. 1(3))

1C1 Irrelevance of civil or commercial character of parties or contract

1C2 Other irrelevant factors, nationality

1D Other issues of applicability

[Sales for personal or family use: see art. 2(a). "Goods"; supply of materials; services: see art. 3. Agreements to apply Convention: see art. 6]


DESCRIPTORS

Applicability ; Business, place of ; Declaration, Art. 95 ; Declaration, Art. 92 ; Declaration, Art. 93 ; Goods, definition of ; Sale, definition of ; Scope of Convention


CASE ANNOTATIONS

There are many Article 1 cases – almost every CISG case is in a certain sense an Article 1 case. There are so many Article 1 cases, one needs an intelligent guide to annotations of the cases. The UNCITRAL Digest provides such a guide. Except for the last two subject categories in the following outline, the cases cited in the UNCITRAL Digest for Article 1 are listed below chronologically in the subject sequence indicated with citations linked to Internet presentations of the full texts of the cases. Full-text English translations are provided to the extent indicated below.

-      Convention Prevails over Recourse to Private International Law
- Contracts Governed by the Convention
- Goods
- Internationality and Place of Business
- Autonomous Applicability [Article 1(1)(a) applications]
- Indirect Applicability [Article 1(1)(b) applications]

CONVENTION PREVAILS OVER RECOURSE TO PRIVATE INTERNATIONAL LAW

Italy 26 November 2002 Tribunale [District Court] Rimini [translation available]

Italy 12 July 2000 Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano [translation available]

Austria 9 March 2000 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court]

Italy 29 December 1999 Tribunale [District Court] Pavia [translation available]

Italy 14 December 1999 Corte di Cassazione [Supreme Court]

Switzerland 8 June 1999 Tribunale d'appelo [Appellate Court] Lugano [translation available]

Netherlands 27 April 1999 Hof [Appellate Court] Arnhem [translation available]

Germany 19 March 1999 Landgericht [District Court] Zwickau

Germany 20 April 1994 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt
 

CONTRACTS GOVERNED BY THE CONVENTION

Italy 20 November 2002 Tribunale [District Court] Rimini [translation available]

Netherlands 1 November 2001 Rechtbank [District Court] Rotterdam

United States 29 August 2000 Federal District Court [Pennsylvania] (Viva Vino v. Farnese)

Italy 14 December 1999 Corte di Cassazione [Supreme Court]

Switzerland 21 October 1999 Kantonsgericht [Canton Court] Zug [translation available]

Germany 19 March 1999 Landgericht [District Court] Zwickau

Germany 29 December 1998 Hamburg Arbitration proceeding [translation available]

Switzerland 30 November 1998 Handeksgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich

ICC September 1998 International Court of Arbitration, Case 8908 [English text]

Germany 12 February 1998 Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] [translation available]

Austria 12 February 1998 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court]

Germany 21 January 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München

Germany 5 November 1997 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm [translation available]

United States 23 July 1997 Federal District Court [New York] (Helen Kaminski v. Marketing Australian Products)

Germany 9 July 1997 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München [translation available]

Netherlands 2 July 1997 Rechtbank [District Court] 's-Gravenhage

Switzerland 20 February 1997 Bezirksgericht [District Court] Saane [translation available]

ICC 23 January 1997 International Court of Arbitration, Case 8611 [translation available]

Switzerland 8 January 1997 Obergericht [Appellate Court] Luzern [translation available]

Germany 11 July 1996 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf

Germany 21 June 1996 Hamburg Arbitration proceeding [translation available]

France 15 May 1996 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble

Germany 21 March 1996 Hamburg Arbitration proceeding [translation available]

Hungary 19 March 1996 Fovárosi Biróság [Metropolitan Court]

Switzerland 11 March 1996 Kantonsgericht [Canton Court] Wallis [translation available]

Germany 21 August 1995 Landgericht [District Court] Ellwangen [translation available]

Belgium 2 May 1995 Rechtbank van Koophandel [District Court] Hasselt

France 22 February 1995 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble [translation available]

Germany 8 February 1995 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München [translation available]

Austria 10 November 1994 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] [translation available]

ICC 1994 International Court of Arbitration, Case 7331 [English text]

Germany 17 September 1993 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz [translation available]

Netherlands 16 July 1992 Hof [Appellate Court] Amsterdam

Germany 26 September 1990 Landgericht [District Court] Hamburg
 

GOODS

Italy 26 November 2002 Tribunale [District Court] Rimini [translation available]

Germany 19 January 2001 Landgericht [District Court] Flensburg [translation available]

Italy 12 July 2000 Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano [translation available]

Switzerland 21 October 1999 Kantonsgericht [Canton Court] Zug [translation available]

Germany 26 May 1998 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Jena [translation available]

France 14 January 1998 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris

Germany 21 May 1996 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln [translation available]

Austria 6 February 1996 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] [translation available]

Germany 16 November 1995 Landgericht [District Court] Köln

Germany 29 May 1995 Landgericht [District Court] München

France 26 April 1995 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble [translation available]

Germany 8 February 1995 Landgericht [District Court] München [translation available]

Austria 10 November 1994 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] [translation available]

Germany 26 August 1994 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln [translation available]

Netherlands 30 December 1993 Rechtbank [District Court] Arnhem

Hungary 20 December 1993 Arbitration Court, Hungarian Chamber of Commerce

Germany 17 September 1993 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz [translation available]

Germany 22 September 1992 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm

Germany 3 July 1992 Landgericht [District Court] Heidelberg
 

INTERNATIONALITY AND PLACE OF BUSINESS

Italy 26 November 2002 Tribunale [District Court] Rimini [translation available]

Germany 31 October 2001 Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] [translation available]

Belgium 25 April 2001 Rechtbank van Koophandel [District Court] Veurne [translation available]

Germany 13 November 2000 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln

China 8 August 2000 Supreme Court of the PRC (Lianhe Enterprise v. Yantai) 1C2 [translation available]

Italy 12 July 2000 Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano [translation available]

Germany 13 April 2000 Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Duisburg [translation available]

Austria 21 March 2000 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court]

Germany 28 February 2000 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Stuttgart [translation available]

Germany 27 December 1999 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Dresden [translation available]

Austria 20 March 1997 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court]

Germany 21 May 1996 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln [translation available

Bulgaria 24 April 1996 Court of Arbitration proceeding 56/1995 [translation available]

Switzerland 12 February 1996 Tribunale d'appello [Appellate Court] Lugano [translation available]

Switzerland 19 December 1995 Obergericht [Appellate Court] Thurgau

Germany 22 June 1995 Landgericht [District Court] Kassel

Germany 12 May 1995 Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Alsfeld

Austria 10 November 1994 Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] [translation available]

Germany 24 January 1994 Kammergericht [Appellate Court] Berlin [translation available]

Switzerland 21 December 1992 Zivilgericht [Civil Court] Basel [translation available]

France 22 April 1992 Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris

Germany 27 November 1991 Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln

Germany 26 September 1990 Landgericht [District Court] Hamburg
 

AUTONOMOUS APPLICABILITY [Article 1(1)(a) applications]

The UNCITRAL Digest lists pages of citations of Article 1(1)(a) applications.
 

INDIRECT APPLICABILITY [Article 1(1)(b) applications]

United States 15 June 2005 Federal District Court [New Jersey] (Valero Marketing v. Greeni Oy) 1B22

Russia 19 February 2004 Arbitration Award 65/2003 1B2 [translation available]
 

China 20 July 1999 Supreme Court of the PRC (Zheng Hong Li Ltd. Hong Kong v. Jill Bert Ltd. Swiss) [translation available]
 

The UNCITRAL Digest also lists a large number of citations to Article 1(1)(b) applications.


UNCITRAL CASE DIGEST

The UNCITRAL Digest of case law on the United
Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods [*]

A/CN.9/SER.C/DIGEST/CISG/1 [8 June 2004]
Reproduced with the permission of UNCITRAL

[Text of Article 1
Digest of Article 1 case law
-    Convention prevails over recourse to private international law
-    Contracts governed by the Convention
-    Goods
-    Internationality and place of business
-    Autonomous applicability
-    Indirect applicability]

ARTICLE 1

      (1) This Convention applies to contracts of sale of goods between parties whose places of business are in different States:

     (a) when the States are Contracting States; or
     (b) when the rules of private international law lead
     to the application of the law of a Contracting State.

      (2) The fact that the parties have their places of business in different States is to be disregarded whenever this fact does not appear either from the contract or from any dealings between, or from information disclosed by, the parties at any time before or at the conclusion of the contract.

      (3) Neither the nationality of the parties nor the civil or commercial character of the parties or of the contract is to be taken into consideration in determining the application of this Convention.

DIGEST OF ARTICLE 1 CASE LAW

1. This article provides some of the rules for determining whether the Convention applies. Article 1 has to be read in connection with articles 2 and 3, which respectively narrow down and extend the substantive sphere of application of the Convention.

Convention prevails over recourse to private international law

2. The first issue to be decided before examining the Convention's substantive, international and territorial sphere of application is that of its relationship to the private international law rules of the forum. This is necessary, as both the Convention and the private international law rules deal with international contracts. According to case law, before resorting to the private international law rules of the forum, courts of Contracting States have to look into whether the Convention applies; [1] in other words, recourse to the Convention prevails over recourse to the forum's private international law;[2] since as a substantive law convention [3] the CISG's rules are more specific and lead directly to a substantive solution whereas the private international law approach requires a two step approach (identification of the applicable law and application thereof).[4]

Contracts governed by the Convention

3. The Convention applies to contracts for the sale of goods. Although the Convention does not provide any definition of this type of contract,[5] a definition can be derived from articles 30 and 53.[6] Thus, the contract for the sale of goods covered by the Convention can be defined as a contract "pursuant to which one party (the seller) is bound to deliver the goods and transfer the property in the goods sold and the other party (the buyer) is obliged to pay the price and accept the goods."[7] Thus, as one court put it, the essence of the contract lies in goods being exchanged for money.[8]

4. The Convention also covers other types of contracts, such as contracts for the delivery of goods by installments,[9] as can be derived from article 73 of the Convention, and contracts providing for the delivery of the goods sold directly from the supplier to the seller's customer.[10] Pursuant to article 29, contracts modifying a sales contract also fall within the substantive sphere of application of the Convention.[11]

5. Article 3 contains a special rule which extends — within certain limits — the Convention's substantive sphere of application to contracts for the sale of goods to be manufactured or produced as well as to contracts pursuant to which the seller is also bound to deliver labour or services.

6. Most courts considering the issue have concluded that the Convention does not apply to distribution agreements,[12] as these agreements aim more at the "organization of the distribution" than at the transfer of the ownership.[13] The various contracts for the sale of goods concluded in execution of the distribution agreement, can, however, be governed by the Convention,[14] even where the distribution agreement was concluded before the entry into force of the Convention.[15]

7. Franchise agreements as well fall outside the Convention's sphere of application.[16]

Goods

8.The Convention does not define "goods". Nevertheless, pursuant to Article 7(1), the concept of "goods" should be interpreted autonomously,[17] in light of the Convention's "international character" and "the need to promote uniformity in its application", rather than by referring to domestic law for a definition.

9. According to case law, "goods" in the sense of the Convention are goods that are, at the moment of delivery,[18] "moveable and tangible",[19] regardless of whether they are solid or not,[20] regardless of whether they are used or new goods,[21] and regardless of whether they are alive or not.[22] Given these decisions, it is arguably consistent that intangible goods, such as intellectual property rights, an interest in a limited liability company,[23] or the assignment of debt [24] are considered not to fall within the Convention's concept of "goods". The same is true for a market research study.[25] However, according to one court, the Convention appears to also apply to goods that are not tangible, since the court states that the concept of "goods" is to be interpreted "extensively".[26]

10. Whereas the sale of computer hardware clearly falls within the sphere of application of the Convention,[27] the same cannot be said about software. Some courts consider only standard software to be  "goods" under the Convention,[28] however another court concluded that any kind of software is considered a "good", even custom-made software.[29]

Internationality and place of business

11. The Convention's sphere of application is limited to contracts for the international sale of goods. According to article 1(1), a contract for the sale of goods is international when the parties have — at the moment of the conclusion of the contract [30] — their relevant place of business in different States.[31]

12. Although the concept of "place of business" is paramount to the determination of internationality, the Convention does not define it. It deals solely with the problem of which of the various places of business of a given person is to be taken into account to determine internationality (article 10).

13. According to one court, "place of business" can be defined as "the place from which a business activity is de facto carried out [...]; this requires a certain duration and stability as well as a certain amount of autonomy".[32] Another court has concluded that a liaison-office cannot be considered a "placeof business" under the Convention.[33]

14. The internationality requirement is not met where the parties have their relevant place of business in the same country. This is true even where they have different nationalities, as article 1(3) states that "the nationality of the parties [...] is [not] to be taken into consideration in determining the application of this Convention".[34] Also, the fact that the place of the conclusion of the contract is located in a different State from the State in which the performance takes place does not render the contract "international".[35] For the purposes of the Convention's applicability, the parties' civil or commercial character is also irrelevant.[36]

15. Where the contract for the sale of goods is concluded through an intermediary, it is necessary to establish who is party to the contract in order to be able to determine whether the contract is international. As the issue of who is party to a contract is not dealt with in the CISG,[37] recourse is to be had to the law applicable by virtue of the rules of private international law of the forum in order to determine who is party to the contract. It is that party's place of business which has to be taken into account to decide whether the contract is international.[38]

16. According to article 1(2), internationality is irrelevant where "the fact that the parties have their places of business in different States [...] does not appear either from the contract or from any dealings between, or from information disclosed by, the parties at any time before or at the conclusion of the contract".[39] Thus, the Convention protects the parties' reliance upon the domestic setting of the transaction. The party that asserts that the Convention is not applicable due to the internationality of the contract not being apparent has to prove its assertion.[40]

Autonomous applicability

17. The internationality of the contract for the sale of goods by itself is not sufficient to make the Convention applicable.[41] Article 1(1) lists two alternative criteria of applicability, one of which has to be met in order for the Convention to apply. According to the criterion set forth in article 1(1)(a), the Convention is "directly"[42] or "autonomously" [43] applicable, i.e. without the need to resort to the rules of private international law,[44] when the States in which the parties have their relevant place of business are Contracting States. As the list of Contracting States is growing, this criterion is leading more and more often to the applicability of the Convention.[45]

18. In order for the Convention to be applicable by virtue of article 1(1)(a), the parties must have their relevant place of business in a Contracting State. "If the two States in which the parties have their places of business are Contracting States, the Convention applies even if the rules of private international law of the forum would normally designate the law of a third country",[46] provided that the application of that country's law is not due to a parties' choice that is intended to exclude the Convention.[47]

19. When a State becomes a Contracting State is determined by article 99. For the Convention to apply by virtue of article 1(1)(a), one must also take into account whether the States in which the parties have their relevant place of business have declared either an article 92 or an article 93 reservation. Where one State has made an article 92 reservation, the Convention as a whole cannot be applicable by virtue of article 1(1)(a). Rather, one must determine on the basis of 1(1)(b) whether the Part to which the reservation relates is applicable.[48] The same is true mutatis mutandis in respect of a party that has its relevant place of business in a territory in relation to which the Contracting State to which the territory belongs has made an article 93 reservation.

Indirect applicability

20. In Contracting States, the Convention can also be applicable – by virtue of article 1(1)(b) – where only one (or neither) party has its relevant place of business in Contracting States,[49] as long as the rules of private international law lead to the law of a Contracting State.[50] Since the relevant rules of private international law are those of the forum,[51] it will depend on the domestic rules of private international law whether the parties are allowed to choose the applicable law, whether one has to look into the rules of private international of the law designated by the rules of private international of the forum, etc.

21. Where the private international law rules of the forum are based upon the 1980 Rome Convention on the Law Applicable to Contractual Obligations,[52] the parties' choice of the law of a Contracting State can lead to the applicability of the Convention by virtue of article 1(1)(b),[53] since article 3 of the Rome Convention recognizes party autonomy.[54] This is also true where the rules of private international law of the forum are those laid down in the 1955 Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to International Sales,[55] as article 2 [56] of this convention also obliges judges to acknowledge the choice of law made by the parties.[57]

22. The Convention may be selected by the parties as the law applicable to the their contract.[58] Where the parties did not make a choice of law or where the choice is not valid, one has to resort to the objective criteria set forth by the rules of private international law of the forum to determine whether the Convention can be applicable by virtue of article 1(1)(b). Thus, under article 4(1) of the 1980 Rome Convention, one has to apply the law "most closely connected" to the contract;[59] according to article 4(2), it is presumed that the contract is most closely connected with the country where the party who is to effect the performance which is characteristic of the contract has its habitual residence at the time of conclusion of the contract. For this reason, the Convention was often applied by courts in contracting States to the Rome Convention when the seller, i.e. the party that has to effect the characteristic performance,[60] had its place of business in a Contracting State to the Convention.[61] Under the 1955 Hague Convention, absent choice of law, one has to apply the law of the seller,[62] except in cases where the seller receives the order in the buyer's country, in which case the law of the buyer governs.[63]

23. At the 1980 Diplomatic Conference, a delegate raised the issue that countries which had enacted special legislation regarding international transactions should be allowed not to apply article 1(1)(b), so as to avoid "the effect which article 1(1)(b) would have on the application of their special legislation on international trade."[64] As a consequence, article 95 was introduced, which gives Contracting States the possibility to choose not to be bound by article 1(1)(b).[65] Thus, judges located in Contracting States that declared an article 95 reservation will not apply the Convention by virtue of article 1(1)(b); this does not, however, affect the Convention's applicability in those Contracting States by virtue of article 1(1)(a).[66]

24. Although the Convention does not bind non-Contracting-States, it has been applied in courts of non-Contracting States where the rules of private international law led to the law of a Contracting State.[67]


FOOTNOTES

* The present text was prepared using the full text of the decisions cited in the Case Law on UNCITRAL Texts (CLOUT) abstracts and other citations listed in the footnotes. The abstracts are intended to serve only as summaries of the underlying decisions and may not reflect all the points made in the digest. Readers are advised to consult the full texts of the listed court and arbitral decisions rather than relying solely on the CLOUT abstracts.

[Citations to cisgw3 case presentations have been substituted [in brackets] for the case citations provided in the UNCITRAL Digest. This substitution has been made to facilitate online access to CLOUT abstracts, original texts of court and arbitral decisions, and full text English translations of these texts (available in most but not all cases). For citations UNCITRAL had used, go to <http://www.uncitral.org/english/clout/digest_cisg_e.htm>.]

1. CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision).

2. For this interpretation, see CLOUT case No. 380 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Pavia 29 December 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991229i3.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Zwickau 19 March 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990319g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 251 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 30 November 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981130s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 345 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Heilbronn 15 September 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970915g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 84 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt 20 April 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940420g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

3. [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 9 March 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000309a3.html>]; [SWITZERLAND Cantone del Ticino [Appellate Court] Lugano 8 June 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990608s1.html>].

4. For this approach, see CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision); [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Rimini 26 November 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/021126i3.html>].

5. This has been pointed out for instance by CLOUT case No. 106  [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 10 November 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/941110a3.html>] (see full text of the decision).

6. See Rechtbank Rotterdam, Netherlands, 1 November 2001, Nederlands Internationaal Privaatrecht, 2002, No. 114; [SWITZERLAND Tribunal Cantonal Vaud [Appellate Court] case No. 01 93 1061 of 11 March 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960311s2.html>]; [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Rimini 26 November 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/021126i3.html>].

7. See CLOUT case No. 106 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 10 November 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/941110a3.html>] (see full text of the decision); for a reference to the buyer's obligation mentioned in the definition referred to in the text, see also [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Hasselt 2 May 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950502b1.html>].

8. CLOUT case No. 328 [SWITZERLAND Kantonsgericht [District Court] Zug 21 October 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991021s1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

9. See [GERMANY Hamburg Arbitration Award of 29 December 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981229g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 251 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 30 November 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981130s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 238 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 12 February 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980212a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 166 [GERMANY Hamburg Arbitration award of 21 March / 21 June 1996; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960321g1.html> / <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960621g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 154 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble 22 February 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950222f1.html>].

10. See CLOUT case No. 269 [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] 12 February 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980212g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 261 [SWITZERLAND Bezirksgericht [District Court] Sanne 20 February 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970220s1.html>].

11. See CLOUT case No. 297 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 21 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980121g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 133 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 8 February 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950208g1.html>]; [ICC Court of Arbitration, case No. 7331 of 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/947331i1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 5 [GERMANY Landgericht [Appellate Court] Hamburg 26 September 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/900926g1.html>].

12. See CLOUT case No. 297 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 21 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980121g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 295 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 5 November 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971105g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 273 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 9 July 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970709g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 169 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 11 July 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960711g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 126 [HUNGARY Fovárosi Biróság [Metropolitan Court] Budapest 19 March 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960319h1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 281 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 17 September 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930917g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [NETHERLANDS Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Amsterdam 16 July 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/920716n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 420 [UNITED STATES Viva Vino Import v. Farnese Vini Federal District Court [Pennsylvania] 29 August 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000829u1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Arnhem 27 April 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990427n1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtsbank [District Court] 's-Gravenhage 2 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970702n1.html>]. One court has applied the CISG to a distributorship agreement.  See CLOUT case No. 379 [ITALY Corte di Cassazione [Supreme Court] 14 December 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991214i3.html>].  For a case in which the issue was raised but not resolved, see CLOUT case No. 187 [UNITED STATES Helen Kaminski v. Marketing Australian Products Federal District Court [New York] 21 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970721u1.html>].

13. CLOUT case No. 192 [SWITZERLAND Obergericht [Appellate Court] Luzern 8 January 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970108s1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

14. See CLOUT case No. 295 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 5 November 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971105g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 273 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 9 July 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970709g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 169 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 11 July 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960711g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 204 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble 15 May 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960515f1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 281 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 17 September 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930917g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [ICC Court of Arbitration, case No. 8908 of September 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/988908i1.html>]; [ICC Court of Arbitration, case No. 8611 of 23 January 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/978611i1.html>].

15. CLOUT case No. 281 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 17 September 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930917g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

16. See CLOUT case No. 192 [SWITZERLAND Obergericht [Appellate Court] Luzern 8 January 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970108s1.html>].

17. See text under article 7.

18. See CLOUT case No. 152 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble 26 April 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950426f1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Rimini 26 November 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/021126i3.html>].

19. See CLOUT case No. 328 [SWITZERLAND Kantonsgericht [District Court] Zug 21 October 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991021s1.html>] (see full text of the decision);  CLOUT case No. 380 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Pavia 29 December 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991229i3.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 168 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 21 May 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960521g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 122 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 26 August 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940826g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 106 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 10 November 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/941110a3.html>] (see full text of the decision); [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Rimini 26 November 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/021126i3.html>].

20. See CLOUT case No. 176 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 6 February 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960206a3.html>], applying the Convention to the international sale of propane gas.

21. See CLOUT case No. 168 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 21 May 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960521g1.html>] (used car); [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Köln 16 November 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951116g1.html>].

22. See CLOUT case No. 100 [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Arnhem 30 December 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/931230n1.html>] (live lambs); CLOUT case No. 280 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Jena 26 May 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980526g1.html>] (live fish); CLOUT case No. 312 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris 14 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980114f1.html>] (circus elephants). Compare CLOUT case No. 106 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 10 November 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/941110a3.html>] (chinchilla pelts); CLOUT case No. 227 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 22 September 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/920922g1.html>] (bacon).  For a decision that considers animals as "goods" in the sense of the Convention, see [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Flensburg 19 January 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/010119g1.html>].

23. See CLOUT case No. 161 [HUNGARY Budapest Arbitration Award case No. Vb 92205 of 20 December 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/931220h1.html>].

24. See CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision).

25. See CLOUT case No. 122 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 26 August 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940826g1.html>].

26. CLOUT case No. 281 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 17 September 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930917g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

27. See [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] München 29 May 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950529g1.html>].

28. See CLOUT case No. 122 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 26 August 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940826g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 131 [GERMANY Landgericht [Appellate Court] München 8 February 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950208g1.html>].

29. See CLOUT case No. 281 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 17 September 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930917g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

30. See [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Dresden 27 December 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991227g1.html>].

31. See CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 168 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 21 May 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960521g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 106 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 10 November 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/941110a3.html>]; [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Rimini 26 November 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/021126i3.html>].

32. [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Stuttgart 28 February 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000228g1.html>]; [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Rimini 26 November 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/021126i3.html>]; for a similar definition see CLOUT case No. 106 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 10 November 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/941110a3.html>] (see full text of the decision); for a court decision stating that the Convention's definition of "place of business" requires the parties to "really" do business out of that place, see [GERMANY Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Duisburg 13 April 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000413g1.html>].

33.  See CLOUT case No. 158 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris 22 April 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/920422f1.html>].

34. For references to the irrelevance of the parties' nationality, see [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] 31 October 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/011031g1.html>]; [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Veurne 25 April 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/010425b1.html>]; [BULGARIA Arbitration case No. 56/1995 Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 24 April 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960424bu.html>].

35. See [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 27 November 1991, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/911127g1.html>].

36. [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] 31 October 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/011031g1.html>].

37. For court decisions stating that issues of agency law and related matters are not dealt with by the Convention, see CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 189 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 20 March 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970320a3.html>] (see full text of the decision); [SWITZERLAND Tribunale [Appellate Court] Lugano 12 February 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960212s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 334 [SWITZERLAND Obergericht [Appellate Court] Thurgau 19 December 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951219s1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Kassel 22 June 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950622g1.html>]; [GERMANY Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Alsfeld 12 May 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950512g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 80 [GERMANY Kammergericht [Appellate Court] Berlin 24 January 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940124g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 95 [SWITZERLAND Zivilgericht [Civil Court] Basel-Stadt 21 December 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/921221s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 5 [GERMANY Landgericht [Appellate Court] Hamburg 26 September 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/900926g1.html>].

38. See [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln, 13 November 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/001113g1.html>].

39. For a reference to this provision in case law, see [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 21 March 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000321a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision).

40. See CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision).

41. See CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision).

42. See [SWITZERLAND Bundesgericht [Federal Supreme Court] 11 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000711s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 261 [SWITZERLAND Bezirksgericht [District Court] Sanne 20 February 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970220s1.html>].

43. See CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 189 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 20 March 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970320a3.html>] (see full text of the decision).

44. See CLOUT case No. 268 [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] 11 December 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961211g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

45. For recent court decisions applying the Convention by virtue of art. 1(1)(a), see [BELGIUM Hof van Beroep [Appellate Court] Gent 31 January 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/020131b1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 398 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Orleans 29 March 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/010329f1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Trier 7 December 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/001207g1.html>]; [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Oldenburg 5 December 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/001205g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Stendal 12 October 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/001012g1.html>]; [FRANCE Tribunal [District Court] Montargis 6 October 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/001006f1.html>]; [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 7 September 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000907a3.html>]; [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt 30 August 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000830g1.html>]; [MEXICO State of Baja California [Sixth Civil Court] Tijuana 14 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000714m1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision); [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 28 April 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000428a3.html>]; [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 13 April 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000413a3.html>]; [SPAIN Audiencia Provincial [Appellate Court] Navarra 27 March 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000327s4.html>]; [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 21 March 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000321a3.html>]; [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 9 March 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000309a3.html>]; [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Stuttgart 28 February 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000228g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 395 [SPAIN Tribunal Supremo [Supreme Court] 28 January 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000128s4.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] 26 January 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000126g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 416 [UNITED STATES KSTP-FM v. Specialized Communications Federal District Court [Minnesota] 9 March 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990309u1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 3 December 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991203g1.html>]; [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 18 November 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991118g1.html>]; [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 12 November 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981112a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 319 [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] 3 November 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991103g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble 21 October 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991021f1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 328 [SWITZERLAND Kantonsgericht [District Court] Zug 21 October 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991021s1.html>]; [SWITZERLAND Kanton [Appellate Court] Basel-Landschaft 5 October 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991005s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 341 [CANADA La San Giuseppe v. Forti Moulding Ltd. [Ontario Superior Court of Justice] 31 August 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990831c4.html>] (see full text of the decision); [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 27 August 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990827a3.html>]; [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 29 June 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990629a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 333 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Aargau 11 June 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990611s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [SWITZERLAND Cantone del Ticino [Appellate Court] Lugano 8 June 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990608s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 315 [FRANCE Cour de Cassation [Supreme Court] 26 May 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990526f1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 265 [HUNGARY Budapest Arbitration Award case No. Vb 97142 of 25 May 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990525h1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 314 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris 21 May 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990521f1.html>]; [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 11 March 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990311a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 418 [UNITED STATES Medical Marketing v. Internazionale Medico Scientifica Federal District Court [Louisiana] 17 May 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990517u1.html>]; [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Naumburg 27 April 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990427g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 325 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 8 April 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990408s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 271 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Zwickau 19 March 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990319g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 306 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 11 March 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990311a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 327 [SWITZERLAND Kantonsgericht [District Court] Zug 25 February 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990225s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 331 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 10 February 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990210s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 243 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble 4 February 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990204f1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 293 [GERMANY Hamburg Arbitration award of 29 December 1998 available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981229g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 339 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Regensburg 24 September 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980924g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [ITALY Corte di Appello [Appellate Court] Milano 11 December 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981211i3.html>]; [MEXICO Compromex Arbitration Award 30 November 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981130m1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 346 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Mainz 26 November 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981126g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 270 [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] 25 November 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981125g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 248 [SWITZERLAND Bundesgericht [Supreme Court] 28 October 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981028s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 419 [UNITED STATES Mitchell Aircraft Spares v. European Aircraft Service Federal District Court [Louisiana] 27 October 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981027u1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 244 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris 4 March 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980304f1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 240 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 15 October 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981015a3.html>]; [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Oldenburg 22 September 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980922g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 252 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 21 September 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980921s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 263 [SWITZERLAND Bezirksgericht [District Court] Unterrheintal 16 September 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980916s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 285 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 11 September 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980911g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 318 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Celle 2 September 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980902g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Bamberg 19 August 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980819g1.html>]; [ITALY Corte Suprema di Cassazione [Supreme Court] 7 August 1998 available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980807i3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 344 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Erfurt 29 July 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980729g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 242 [FRANCE Cour de Cassation [Supreme Court] 16 July 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980716f1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 305 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 30 June 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980630a3.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 255 [SWITZERLAND Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Valais / Wallis 30 June 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980630s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 222 [UNITED STATES MCC-Marble Ceramic Center v. Ceramica Nuova D'Agostino, Federal Appellate Court [11th Circuit] 29 June 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980629u1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 256 [SWITZERLAND Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Valais 29 June 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980629s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 25 June 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980625a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 338 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm  23 June 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980623g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 237 [STOCKHOLM CHAMBER OF COMMERCE Arbitration Award of 5 June 1998; available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980605s5.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 290 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Saarbrücken 3 June 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980603g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 280 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Jena 26 May 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980526g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Aurich 8 May 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980508g1.html>]; [ITALY Corte di Cassazione [Supreme Court] 8 May 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980508i3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 413 [UNITED STATES Calzaturificio Claudia v. Olivieri Footwear Federal District Court [New York] 6 April 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980406u1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 272 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Zweibrücken 31 March 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980331g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 245 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris 18 March 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980318f1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 232 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 11 March 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980311g1.html>]; [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 10 March 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980310a3.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Hoge Raad [Supreme Court] 20 February 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980220n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 269 [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] 12 February 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980212g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [BULGARIA Arbitration case No. 11/1996 Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 12 February 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980212bu.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Bückeburg 3 February 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980203g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 288 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 28 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980128g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 259 [SWITZERLAND Kantonsgericht [Canton Court] Freiburg 23 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980123s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 297 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 21 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980121g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [FRANCE Tribunal [District Court] Besançon 19 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980119f1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 253 [SWITZERLAND Cantone del Ticino [Appellate Court] Lugano 15 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980115s1.html>] (see full text of the decision);  CLOUT case No. 312 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris 14 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980114f1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 257 [SWITZERLAND Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Vaud 24 December 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971224s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 254 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Aargau 19 December 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971219s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [FRANCE Tribunal [District Court] Colmar 18 December 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971218f1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Bayreuth 11 December 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971211g1.html>]; [AUSTRIA Vienna Arbitration proceeding award No. S 2/97 of 10 December 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971210a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 220 [SWITZERLAND Kantonsgericht [District Court] Nidwalden 3 December 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971203s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 221 [SWITZERLAND Zivilgericht [Civil Court] Basel-Stadt 3 December 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971203s2.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 207 [FRANCE Cour de Cassation [Supreme Court] 2 December 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971202f1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 295 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 5 November 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971105g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 246 [SPAIN Audiencia Provincial [Appellate Court] Barcelona 3 November 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971103s4.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 247 [SPAIN Audiencia Provincial [Appellate Court] Córdoba 31 October 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971031s4.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 219 [SWITZERLAND Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Valais 28 October 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971028s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [FRANCE Tribunal [District Court] Paris 28 October 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971028f1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Erfurt 28 October 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971028g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 218 [SWITZERLAND Kantonsgericht [District Court] Zug 16 October 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971016s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Hagen 15 October 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971015g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 248 [SWITZERLAND Bundesgericht [Supreme Court] 28 October 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981028s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [NETHERLANDS Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] s'Hertogenbosch 2 October 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971002n1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Hoge Raad [Supreme Court] 26 September 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970926n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 217 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] 26 September 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970926s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 345 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Heilbronn 15 September 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970915g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 307 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 11 September 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970911a3.html>] (see full text of the decision); [AUSTRIA Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Linz 8 September 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970908a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 284 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 21 August 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970821g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 216 [SWITZERLAND Kantonsgericht [District Court] St. Gallen 12 August 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970812s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Göttingen 31 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970731g1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] s'Hertogenbosch 24 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970724n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 187  [UNITED STATES Helen Kaminski v. Marketing Australian Products Federal District Court [New York] 21 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970721u1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 236 [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] 23 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970723g2.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Saarbrücken 18 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970718g1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Arnhem 17 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970717n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 273 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 9 July 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970709g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 287 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] München 9 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970709g2.html>]; CLOUT case No. 215 [SWITZERLAND Bezirksgericht [District Court] St. Gallen 3 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970703s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 172 [HUNGARY Fovárosi Biróság [Metropolitan Court] Budapest 1 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970701h1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 235 [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] 25 June 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970625g2.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 230 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Karlsruhe 25 June 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970625g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Hamburg 19 June 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970619g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 239 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 18 June 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970618a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 173 [HUNGARY Fovárosi Biróság [Metropolitan Court] Budapest 17 June 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970617h1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [NETHERLANDS Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Arnhem 17 June 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/9706717n1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Paderborn 10 June 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970610g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 174 [HUNGARY Budapest Arbitration Award case No. Vb 96038 of 8 May 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970508h1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] München 6 May 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970506g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 275 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 24 April 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970424g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Frankenthal 17 April 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970417g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 189 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 20 March 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970320a3.html>] (see full text of the decision); [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Zwolle 5 March 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970305n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 261 [SWITZERLAND Bezirksgericht [District Court] Sanne 20 February 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970220s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 396 [SPAIN Audiencia Provincial [Appellate Court] Barcelona 4 February 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970204s4.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 282 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 31 January 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970131g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [ITALY Pretura [District Court] Torino 30 January 1997 available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970130i3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 192 [SWITZERLAND Obergericht [Appellate Court] Luzern 8 January 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970108s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 311 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 8 January 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970108g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 206 [FRANCE Cour de Cassation [Supreme Court] 17 December 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961217f1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Kortrijk 16 December 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961216b1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 268 [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] 11 December 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961211g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] München 9 December 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961209g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 229 [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] 4 December 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961204g1.html>]; [GERMANY Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Koblenz 12 November 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961112g1.html>]; [AUSTRIA Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Wien 7 November 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961107a3.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Heidelberg 2 October 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961002g1.html>]; [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 13 September 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960913g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 169 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 11 July 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960711g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 193 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 10 July 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960710s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Paderborn 25 June 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960625g1.html>]; [GERMANY Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Bottropp 25 June 1996,, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960625g2.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Hamburg 17 June 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960617g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 168 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 21 May 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960521g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 143 [HUNGARY Fovárosi Biróság [Metropolitan Court] Budapest 21 May 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960521h1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 204 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble 15 May 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960515f1.html>]; [BULGARIA Arbitration case No. 56/1995 Bulgarian Chamber of Commerce and Industry 24 April 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960424bu.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Aachen 19 April 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960419g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Duisburg 17 April 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960417g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 171 [GERMANY Bundesgerichtshof [Supreme Court] 3 April 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960403g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 337 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Saarbrücken 26 March 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960326g1.html>]; [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Busto Arsizio 13 December 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/011213i3.html>] (Ecuador and Italy); [ITALY Corte di Appello [Appellate Court] Milano 23 January 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/010123i3.html>]. (Finland and Italy, question not regarding part II of Convention).

46. United Nations Conference on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna, 10 March - 11 April 1980, Official Records, Documents of the Conference and Summary Records of the Plenary Meetings and of the Meetings of the Main Committee, 1981, 15.

47. For an analysis of the issue of exclusion of the Convention, see the comments to article 6.

48. See CLOUT case No. 309 [DENMARK Østre Landsret [Appellate Court] 23 April 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980423d1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 143 [HUNGARY Fovárosi Biróság [Metropolitan Court] Budapest 21 May 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960521h1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 228 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Rostock 27 July 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950727g1.html>]; [ICC Court of Arbitration, case No. 7585 of 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/927585i1.html>].

49. United Nations Conference on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna, 10 March - 11 April 1980, Official Records, Documents of the Conference and Summary Records of the Plenary Meetings and of the Meetings of the Main Committee, 1981, 15.

50. For cases referring to art. 1(1)(b), see [AUSTRALIA Downs Investments v. Perwaja Steel [Supreme Court of Queensland] 17 November 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/001117a2.html>] (Malaysian and Australian parties chose law applying in Brisbane); [ARGENTINA Cámara Nacional de los Apelaciones en lo Comercial [Appellate Court] 24 April 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000424a1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 400 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Colmar 24 October 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/001024f1.html>]; [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Pavia 29 December 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991229i3.html">]; CLOUT case No. 348 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamburg 26 November 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991126g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 294 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Bamberg 13 January 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990113g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 251 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 30 November 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981130s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 274 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Celle 11 November 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981111g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 309 [DENMARK Østre Landsret [Eastern Appellate Court] 23 April 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980423d1.html>]; [ITALY Corte d'Appello [Appellate Court] Milano 20 March 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980320i3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 238 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 12 February 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980212a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 224 [FRANCE Cour de Cassation [Supreme Court] 27 January 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980127f1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [NETHERLANDS Hoge Raad [Supreme Court] 7 November 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971107n1.html>]; [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Kortrijk 6 October 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/971006b1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 283 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 9 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970709g3.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Zutphen 29 May 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970529n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 227 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 22 September 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/920922g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 214 [SWITZERLAND Handelsgericht [Commercial Court] Zürich 5 February 1997; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970205s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Kortrijk 6 January 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970106b1.html>]; [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble 23 October 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961023f1.html>]; [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Haaselt 9 October 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961009b1.html>]; [GERMANY Arbitration Hamburg 21 June 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960621g1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Gerechtshof [Appellate Court] Leeuwarden 5 June 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960605n1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Oldenbrug 27 March 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960327g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 166 [GERMANY Hamburg Arbitration award of 21 March / 21 June 1996; available at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960321g1.html> / <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960621g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Bad Kreuznach 12 March 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960312g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 176 [AUSTRIA Oberster Gerichtshof [Supreme Court] 6 February 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960206a3.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Siege 5 December 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951205g1.html>]; [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Hasselt 8 November 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951108b1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Hamburg 23 October 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951023g1.html>]; [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Hasselt 18 October 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951018b1.html>]; [BELGIUM Tribunal [District Court] Nivelles 19 September 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950919b1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Almelo 9 August 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950809n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 276 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt 5 July 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950705g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 262 [SWITZERLAND Gerichtskommission Oberrheintal Kanton St. Gallen 30 June 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950630s1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Kassel 22 June 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950622g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 152 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble 26 April 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950426f1.html>]; [GERMANY Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Wangen 8 March 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950308g2.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Zwolle 1 March 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950301n2.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Middelburg 25 January 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950125n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 155 [FRANCE Cour de Cassation [Supreme Court] 4 January 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950104f1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Mayen 6 September 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940906g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Düsseldorf 25 August 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940825g1.html>]; [ICC Court of Arbitration, case No. 7660 of 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/947660i1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 93 [AUSTRIA Vienna Arbitration Award, case No. SCH-4366 of 15 June 1994; available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940615a3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 94 [AUSTRIA Vienna Arbitration Award, case No. SCH-4318 of 15 June 1994; available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940615a4.html>] ; CLOUT case No. 92 [ITALY Ad hoc Arbitral Tribunal Florence 19 April 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940419i3.html>]; CLOUT case No. 120 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Köln 22 February 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940222g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 81 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 10 February 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940210g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 80 [GERMANY Kammergericht [Appellate Court] Berlin 24 January 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940124g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 100 [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Arnhem 30 December 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/931230n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 156 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris 10 November 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/931110f1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 281 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 17 September 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930917g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 49 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 2 July 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930702g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 25 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble 16 June 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930616f1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 201 [SWITZERLAND Richteramt [District Court] Laufen des Kantons Berne 7 May 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930507s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 310 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 12 March 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930312g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 99 [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Arnhem 25 February 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930225n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 292 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Saarbrücken 13 January 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930113g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 48 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 8 January 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930108g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 95 [SWITZERLAND Zivilgericht [Civil Court] Basel-Stadt 21 December 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/921221s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 317 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Karlsruhe 20 November 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/921120g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 227 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Hamm 22 September 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/920922g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 56 [SWITZERLAND Canton of Ticino [District Court] Locarno Campagna 27 April 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/920427s1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 158 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Paris 22 April 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/920422f1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 98 [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Roermond 19 December 1991, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/911219n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 55 [SWITZERLAND Pretore della giurisdizione [District Court] Locarno 16 December 1991, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/911216s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 316 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 27 September 1991, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/910927g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 2 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt 17 September 1991, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/910917g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

51. See CLOUT case No. 378 [ITALY Tribunale [District Court] Vigevano 12 July 2000, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/000712i3.html>] (see full text of the decision).

52. For the text of this convention, see Official Journal L 266 , 9 October 1980, 1 et seq.

53. See [BELGIUM Hof van Beroep [Appellate Court] Gent 15 May 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/020515b1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 409 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Kassel 15 February 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960215g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [ICC Court of Arbitration, case No. 8324 of 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/958324i1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] s'Gravenhage 7 June 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950607n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 48 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 8 January 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930108g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 281 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 17 September 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930917g1.html>].

54. See article 3 of the Rome Convention:

"1. A contract shall be governed by the law chosen by the parties. The choice must be expressed or demonstrated with reasonable certainty by the terms of the contract or the circumstances of the case. By their choice the parties can select the law applicable to the whole or a part only of the contract.

2. The parties may at any time agree to subject the contract to a law other than that which previously governed it, whether as a result of an earlier choice under this article or of other provisions of this Convention. Any variation by the parties of the law to be applied made after the conclusion of the contract shall not prejudice its formal validity under article 9 or adversely affect the rights of third parties.

3. The fact that the parties have chosen a foreign law, whether or not accompanied by the choice of a foreign tribunal, shall not, where all the other elements relevant to the situation at the time of the choice are connected with one country only, prejudice the application of rules of the law of that country which cannot be derogated from by contract, hereinafter called "mandatory rules".

4. The existence and validity of the consent of the parties as to the choice of the applicable law shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of Articles 8, 9 and 11."

55. 1955 Hague Convention on the Law Applicable to International Sale of Goods, 510 U.N.T.S. 149, No. 7411 (1964).

56. See article 2 of the Hague Convention:

"A sale shall be governed by the domestic law of the country designated by the Contracting Parties.
Such designation must be contained in an express clause, or unambiguously result from the provisions of the contract.
Conditions affecting the consent of the parties to the law declared applicable shall be determined by such law."

57. For cases applying the United Nations Sales Convention by virtue of a choice of law acknowledged by the judges on the grounds of article 2 of the 1995 Hague Convention, see [BELGIUM Tribunal [District Court] Bruxelles 13 November 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/921113b1.html>].

See, for example, [NETHERLANDS Arbitration Institute Award Case No. 2319 of 15 October 2002, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950607n1.html>].

59. For cases referring to the "closest connection", see CLOUT case No. 81 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 10 February 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940210g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Düsseldorf 25 August 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940825g1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Roermond 6 May 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930506n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 316 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 27 September 1991, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/910927g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 1 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Frankfurt 13 June 1991, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/910613g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

60. For cases expressly pointing out that the seller is the party that has to effect the characteristic performance, see [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Berlin 24 March 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980324g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] München 6 May 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970506g1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Amsterdam 5 October 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/941005n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 81 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 10 February 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940210g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 310 [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Düsseldorf 12 March 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930312g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); CLOUT case No. 6 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Frankfurt 16 September 1991, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/910916g1.html>] (see full text of the decision); [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Frankfurt 2 May 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/900502g1.html>].

61. For cases applying the Convention on the basis of the presumption referred to in the text, see, e.g., [BELGIUM Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Mons 8 March 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/010308b1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Bad Kreuznach 12 March 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/960312g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Frankfurt 6 July 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940706g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 50 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Baden-Baden 14 August 1991, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/910814g1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

62. See [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Hasselt 9 October 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961009b1.html>]; [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Hasselt 8 November 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951108b1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 152 [FRANCE Cour d'appel [Appellate Court] Grenoble 26 April 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950426f1.html>]; [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Hasselt 18 October 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951018b1.html>]; [BELGIUM Tribunal [District Court] Bruxelles 5 October 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/941005b1.html>]; [SWITZERLAND Tribunal Cantonal [Appellate Court] Vaud 6 December 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/931206s1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 201 [SWITZERLAND Richteramt [District Court] Laufen des Kantons Berne 7 May 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930507s1.html>];  CLOUT case No. 56 [SWITZERLAND Pretore della giurisdizione [District Court ] Locarno Campagna 27 April 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/920427s1.html>] (see full text of the decision).

63. [FRANCE Cour de Cassation [Supreme Court] 26 June 2001, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/010626f1.html>]; Trib. Verona, 19 December 1997, Rivista veronese di giurisprudenza economica e dell'impresa 1998, 22 ff.

64. United Nations Conference on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods, Vienna, 10 March - 11 April 1980, Official Records, Documents of the Conference and Summary Records of the Plenary Meetings and of the Meetings of the Main Committee, 1981, 229.

65. To date the following States have declared an article 95 reservation: Canada (for province of British Colombia only), China, Czech Republic, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Singapore, Slovakia, United States of America. GERMANY has stated a declaration that it will not apply Article 1(1)(b) in respect of any State that has made a declaration that it would not apply Article 1(1)(b).

66. See CLOUT case No. 417 [UNITED STATES Magellan International v. Salzgitter Handel Federal District Court [Illinois] 7 December 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/991207u1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 416 [UNITED STATES KSTP-FM v. Specialized Communications Federal District Court [Minnesota] 9 March 1999, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/990309u1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 419 [UNITED STATES Mitchell Aircraft Spares v. European Aircraft Service Federal District Court [Louisiana] 27 October 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/981027u1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 222 [UNITED STATES MCC-Marble Ceramic Center v. Ceramica Nuova D'Agostino, Federal Appellate Court [11th Circuit] 29 June 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980629u1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 413 [UNITED STATES Calzaturificio Claudia v. Olivieri Footwear Federal District Court [New York] 6 April 1998, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/980406u1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 187 [UNITED STATES Helen Kaminski v. Marketing Australian Products Federal District Court [New York] 21 July 1997, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/970721u1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 138 [UNITED STATES Delchi Carrier v. Rotorex, Federal Appellate Court [2nd Circuit] 6 December 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951206u1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 86 [UNITED STATES Graves v. Chilewich Federal District Court [New York] 22 September 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940922u1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 85 [UNITED STATES Delchi Carrier v. Rotorex Federal District Court [New York] 9 September 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940909u1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 24 [UNITED STATES Beijing Metals v. American Business Center, Federal Appellate Court [5th Circuit] 15 June 1993, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/930615u1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 23 [UNITED STATES Filanto v. Chilewich Federal District Court [New York] 14 April 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/920414u1.html>].

67. See [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Kortrijk 16 December 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961216b1.html>]; [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Haaselt 9 October 1996, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/961009b1.html>]; [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Hasselt 8 November 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951108b1.html>]; [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Hasselt 18 October 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/951018b1.html>]; [BELGIUM Tribunal [District Court] Nivelles 19 September 1995, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/950919b1.html>]; [BELGIUM Tribunal [District Court] Bruxelles 5 October 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/941005b1.html>]; [BELGIUM Rechtbank [Appellate Court] Hasselt 16 March 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940316b1.html>]; [BELGIUM Rechtbank [District Court] Hasselt 23 February 1994, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/940223b1.html>]; [BELGIUM Tribunal [District Court] Bruxelles 13 November 1992, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/921113b1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 98 [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Roermond 19 December 1991, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/911219n1.html>; [GERMANY Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Ludwigsburg 21 December 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/901221g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 5 [GERMANY Landgericht [Appellate Court] Hamburg 26 September 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/900926g1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Dordrecht 21 November 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/901121n1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Hildesheim 20 July 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/900720g1.html>]; [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Frankfurt 2 May 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/900502g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 7 [GERMANY Amtsgericht [Lower Court] Oldenburg in Holstein 24 April 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/900424g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 46 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Aachen 3 April 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/900403g1.html>]; [GERMANY Oberlandesgericht [Appellate Court] Koblenz 23 February 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/900223g1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Alkmaar 8 February 1990, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/900208n1.html>]; [NETHERLANDS Rechtbank [District Court] Alkmaar 30 November 1989, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/891130n1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 4 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] Stuttgart 31 August 1989, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/890831g1.html>]; CLOUT case No. 3 [GERMANY Landgericht [District Court] München 3 July 1989, available online at <http://cisgw3.law.pace.edu/cases/890703g1.html>].


Pace Law School Institute of International Commercial Law - Last updated February 20, 2008
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